Shale gas fracturing pdf

Evaluating the environmental implications of hydraulic. Shale gas geology shale gas is natural gas produced from shale formations and these shales function as both reservoir and source rock for the natural gas. Pdf there is at present much interest in unconventional sources of natural gas, especially in shale gas which is obtained by hydraulic fracturing, or. If and when natural gas prices will rise in north america is the big unknown currently supply outstrips demand. Estimated production of shale gas from 2007 through 2011 in trillions of cubic feet 29 figure 10. About shale gas and hydraulic fracturing fracking gov. What is shale gas, how is it extracted through fracking. Shale gas shale oil gboe gboe poland 25 3,3 france 23 4,7 romania 9 0,3 denmark 5 0 uk 4 0,7 netherlands 4 2,9 others 9 1 total 80 12,9 country. How shale gas development will impact investment in renewable energy sources and how much environmental. These steps include road and well pad construction, drilling the well, casing, perforating, hydraulic fracturing, completion, production, abandonment, and reclamation. Hydraulic fracturing known as fracking is a technique used to extract gas or oil from subterranean rock. Hydraulic fracturing is extensively used to develop unconventional reservoirs, such as tight gas, shale gas and shale oil reservoirs. Hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling are safely unlocking vast u. In situ sequestration of a hydraulic fracturing fluid in.

Sand pumped in with the fluids often water helps to keep the. The process takes on the average, three to five days to complete. Hydraulic fracturing enhanced by water pressure blasting. Hydraulic fracturing, a common process for shale gas extraction, injects substantial amounts of fracking fluid at high flow rate and pressure into the well clark et al. Hydraulic fracturing considerations for natural gas wells. Shale gas activity in the uk is still in the exploration stage. Hydraulic fracturing in shale with h2o, co2 and n2 onepetro. Largely due to shale gas discoveries, estimated reserves of natural gas in. In the past decade, innovations in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have fueled a. As for what fracking means to the united states the answers are security, economic growth and jobs, jobs, jobs. This change is driven by production from unconventional reserves using fracking and horizontal drilling. We explore the use of these gases as stimulants on green river shale to compare the form and behavior of fractures in shale driven by different gas compositions and states and indexed by breakdown. An overview of hydraulic fracturing and other formation. Storage tank for produced water in the barnett shale 43.

The information provided below explains the basics, including what shale gas is, where its found, why its important, how its produced, and challenges associated with production. Hydraulic fracturing commonly known as fracking is the process used to extract shale gas. Shale gas formations are unconventional reservoirs i. Hydraulic fracturing fracking is a technique used to recover gas from shale rock. This proven engineering activity was first introduced in 1949 and has become a key technology in producing oil and natural gas worldwide. This webpage has been developed to answer the many questions that people have about shale gas and hydraulic fracturing or fracking. Pdf on jan 1, 2015, lorenzo cremonese and others published shale gas and fracking in europe find, read and cite all the research you. One shale gas play that is currently in the early stages of development is the marcellus.

Macroscopic flowback data from longmaxi shale gas wells in the sichuan basin further demonstrates that by adding 1030 days to current shutin operations the flowback rates of a hf fluid decrease approximately 515%, meaning a reduction of 20006000 m3 wastewater per single well without extra technical procedures or additives. Hydraulic fracturing is used to create fractures or fissures in shale formations, allowing oil and gas to flow into the well. The main difference between tight gas and shale gas, however, is that tight gas can be found in low permeability sedimentary rocks, such as sandstones, while shale gas rocks are usually impermeable 2 royal dutch shell plc. Hydraulic fracturing hydraulic fracture stimulation, fraccing is a process through which a large number of fractures are created mechanically in the rock, thus allowing the natural gas andor crude oil trapped in subsurface formations to move through those fractures to the wellbore from where it can then flow to the surface. This period has been mainly referred to as the shale gas boom or revolution and the growth of natural gas production in the united states through shale gas extraction has led. In the past decade, energy companies have learned to tap previously inaccessible oil and gas in shale with hydraulic fracturing fracturing or fracking, pumping fluid at high pressure to crack the shale and release gas and oil trapped inside. This process, called hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, enables the trapped gas to be released and flow to the wellbore. With fracking for shale gas being relatively new, there are many gaps in the. Summary the health, safety and environmental risks associated with hydraulic fracturing often termed fracking as a means to extract shale gas can be managed effectively in the uk as long as operational best practices are implemented and. In this regard, important developments have occurred in the united states of america since the mid2000s.

Pdf energy technology assessment of shale gas fracking a. Shale gas a natural tight gas 9 drivers for growth 10 the evolving global energy landscape and the emergence of shale gas 11 hydraulic fracturing 16 water and the fracking process 17 different aspects of waterrelated risks from fracking 18 other threats linked to shale gas and fracking 22 case descriptions 25 recommendations 29. Shale gas and shale oil plays the 750 trillion cubic feet of shale gas resources in the intek shale report is a subset of the aeo2011 onshore lower 48 states natural gas shale technically recoverable resource estimate of 862 trillion cubic feet. Link to shale environmental regulator group serg page added, and info about serg updated. Hydraulic fracturing considerations for natural gas. Shale gas is the term often used to describe both tight gas and shale gas resources. Representafion of common equipment at a natural gas hydraulic fracturing drill pad.

The british geological survey estimates that there is between 0 trillion cubic feet of shale gas. Shale gas is produced from shales with a technology called hydraulic fracturing fracking to create extensive artificial fractures around well bores. Questions and answers for shale gas, hydraulic fracturing of a reservoir is the preferred stimulation method see graphic below. Hydraulic fracture techniques are used in the development of shale gas and coalbed methane. Shale gas plays are unconventional reservoirs because these formations contain oil or gasbearing rocks which. Shale gas is dispersed throughout the shale rock formation and therefore must be extracted using hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, which is a process of breaking apart rock formations by.

Horizontal drilling is often used with shale gas wells, with lateral lengths up to 3000 m within the shale, to create maximum borehole surface area. The economics of shale gas development resources for the future. Impact of shale gas development on water resources. Shale gas production, by shale play from 2007 through 2011 31 figure 11. Current knowledge and potential environmental impacts page 3 of 26 preface the extraction of shale gas on a commercial scale is an activity that is licensable by the environmental protection agency epa of ireland.

The hydraulic fracturing process hydraulic fracturing is not a drilling technique. The rise of shale gas development has triggered an intense public debate regarding the potential environmental and human health effects from hydraulic fracturing. It is a technology used to enhance the flow of gasoil from a well, once the drilling is completed and the drilling rig is removed from the site. The technical literature around the adaptation of horizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing to shale developments is extensive, addressing nearly every aspect of shale gas and oil development with over 550 papers in shale fracturing and 3,000 on all aspects of horizontal wells. Ontarians are more likely to favor a stronger federal role 43% to 32%. Shale gas activity in the uk is still in the exploration stage, where companies are drilling test wells. Fracking for shale gas in england national audit office. Hydraulic fracturing commonly referred to as fracking or fracing is often misused as an umbrella term to include all of the steps involved in shale gas production. Great lakes basin residents recognize both negative and positive potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing and shale gas and oil drilling for the great lakes region. Shale gas exploration and production key issues and responsible business practices guidance note for financiers this guidance note has been produced to assist financial institutions in their internal conversations and decisionmaking with regard to risks and responsible business practices associated with shale gas production.

It is uncertain how much gas might be recovered from shale in the uk. In england, this rock lies deep underground primarily in. Each chapter focuses on a particular controversy, such contamination of well water with gas from fracking, and follows a similar format. This report is an updated version of the previous report an overview of hydraulic fracturing and other formation stimulation technologies for shale gas production, published in 20 eur 26347 en, isbn number 9789279347290, pubsy number jrc86065.

However, a full understanding of the activation of natural fractures, prediction of fracture growth, distribution of proppant, and network. Fracturing gels as analogs to understand fracture behavior. Deep holes are drilled down into the shale rock, followed by horizontal drilling to access more of the gas reserves, as shale reserves are typically distributed horizontally rather than vertically. Hydraulic fracturing is widely used in the exploitation of unconventional reservoirs, such as shale gas and tight gas. This typically involves injecting pressurized fluids to stimulate or fracture shale formations and release the natural gas. Shale gas in the united states is an available source of natural gas. Led by new applications of hydraulic fracturing technology and horizontal drilling, development of new sources of shale gas has offset declines in production from conventional gas reservoirs, and has led to major increases in reserves of us natural gas. The rapid rise of shale gas development through horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing has expanded the extraction of hydrocarbon resources in the u. Slickwater fracturing is the most routine form of well stimulation in shales.

An overview of hydraulic fracturing and other formation stimulation. Hydraulic fracturing an overview sciencedirect topics. Shale gas exploration and production key issues and. The uks shale gas resource, as a homegrown supply, could add to the diversity of our gas supplies and help to support our energy security. While our main focus is on shale gas, fracking has also. Developing energy from shale is an advanced process that uses the latest drilling technologies and equipment. About shale gas and hydraulic fracturing fracking 3 introduction this document provides a synopsis of common questions put forward in relation to shale gas and fracking with government responses to these questions.

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